Group members elected one of their number Party Group Organiser (PGO), to take responsibility for Party Work. 3See, for example, Oskar Anweiler, "Motive und Ziele der sozialistischen Umgestaltung des Schulwesens in Mitteldeutschland," Bildung und Erziehung 12 (1959): pp. A problem for the Soviets that they identified with the early SED was its potential to develop into a nationalist party. The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), often known in English as the East German Communist Party,[2] was the governing Marxist–Leninist[3] political party of the German Democratic Republic (GDR; East Germany) from the country's foundation in October 1949 until its dissolution after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989. [6] However, there is much evidence that the merger was more troubled than commonly portrayed. This is a preview of subscription content, Arbeitskreis für vergleichende Deutschlandforschung unter Vorsitz von. It adopted a fresh party statute and transformed the party executive committee into a central committee (Zentralkomitee or ZK). Leitung v. Voß, P., 1981: Die Freizeit der Jugend, Berlin. The most important day-to-day work of the Central Committee was undertaken by the Politburo, a small circle of senior party officers, comprising between 15 and 25 members, along with approximately 10 (non-voting) candidate members. : Die Familie Im Recht Der Ddr: 66: Schneider, Ute: Books Sozialistische Zentralplanwirtschaft in der SBZ/DDR. Along with their party responsibilities, party secretaries were members of the state administration, and they secured the leadership role that the SED claimed for itself in businesses and offices. The Formation of Socialist Elites in the GDR: Continuities with National Socialist Germany/Sozialistische Elitenbildung in der DDR: Kontinuitätsstränge zum nationalsozialistischen Deutschland This international status and the country's improved diplomatic and political standing were the major areas stressed by this congress. The SED made the teaching of Marxism–Leninism and the Russian language compulsory in schools. The union was rejected consistently in the three western occupation zones, where both parties remained independent. By the time of East Germany's formal establishment in 1949, the SED was a full-fledged Communist party—essentially the KPD under a new name. In his speeches, Honecker, along with other SED officials, devoted greater attention to Third World countries than he had done in the past. Von der wissenschaftlich-strategischen Konferenz zum 70. The GDR was a one-party state[4] but other institutional popular front parties were permitted to exist in alliance with the SED, these parties being the Christian Democratic Union, the Liberal Democratic Party, the Democratic Farmers' Party, and the National Democratic Party. Delegates were selected from the regional and sectional party organisations according to criteria determined by the Party Central Committee. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Politik und Gesellschaft in sozialistischen Ländern They were also required to provide a monthly report on "Morale and Opinions" ("Stimmungen und Meinungen") concerning the people covered by their party secretarial duties. Buy Hausvateridylle Oder Sozialistische Utopie? Not affiliated In his closing remarks, he stated: "Our party, the SED, is linked forever with the party of Lenin, [the CPSU]." Where work on occasion attracted criticism, there were many ways on which changes could be passed on. The industrial sector, employing 40% of the working population, was subjected to further nationalization, which resulted in the formation of "people's enterprises" (German: Volkseigener Betrieb, VEB). Search. The regional party leadership team ("SED Bezirksleitung"/ BL) was an elected body, membership of which was unpaid. Where there were several Party Groups operating in a single place they would be combined in a Departmental Party Organisation (APO / Abteilungsparteiorganisation) which in turn would have its own leadership and an APO Party Secretariat. Official statements on the subject of foreign policy were mixed, particularly with respect to East Germany's relations with West Germany and the rest of Western Europe. In the spring of 1971, the 8th Congress rolled back some of the programs associated with the Ulbricht era and emphasized short-term social and economic problems. The Party conference was formally the party's leading institution. The Secretariat played a decisive role in selecting the Nomenklatura of the Central Committee. The 11th Congress, held 17–21 April 1986, unequivocally endorsed the SED and Honecker, whom it confirmed for another term as party head. On 1 December 1989, the GDR parliament (Volkskammer) rescinded the clause in the GDR Constitution which defined the country as a socialist state under the leadership of the SED, thus formally ending Communist rule in East Germany. East Germany's growing involvement in both the East European economic system and the global economy reflected its new international status. Also, Tiulpanov indicated that there was a marked "political passivity" among former SPD members, who felt they were being treated unfairly and as second-class party members by the new SED administration. The party was established in April 1946 by the merging of the Communist Party of Germany and Social Democratic Party of Germany. Also reported was a great deal of difficulty in convincing the masses that the SED was a German political party and not merely a tool of the Soviet occupation force. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden At the same time, the party completed its transformation into a more orthodox Soviet-style party with the election of Walter Ulbricht as the party's General Secretary. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. The 9th Congress initiated a hard line in the cultural sphere, which contrasted with the policy of openness and tolerance enunciated at the previous congress. The SED used the occasion to announce its willingness to cooperate with West Germany and the Soviet Union in helping to solve a variety of international problems, particularly the future political status of Berlin. The SED was modeled after the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. To distance itself from its repressive past, the party added "Party of Democratic Socialism" (PDS) to its name. Everyday low … Plädoyer für mehr politische Kulturforschung. It received 16.4% of the vote in the 1990 parliamentary elections. Krenz tried to portray himself as a reformer, but few believed him. But the about-face in economic policy that year cannot be attributed to Honecker's advancement alone. There were in total 262 of these sectional leadership teams, including one each for the Free German Youth (FDJ), the Trade Union Federation (FDGB), the Foreign Ministry, the Foreign Trade Ministry, the State Railway organisation, the military branches of the Interior Ministry, the Ministry for State Security (Stasi), the National People's Army, each of which had its own integrated political-administrative structure. The congress also highlighted the fact that East Germany had achieved international recognition in the intervening years. The 1st Party Congress (Vereinigungsparteitag), which convened on 21 April 1946, was the unification congress. Wilhelm „Die sozialistische Umgestaltung der Landwirtschaft in der DDR (1952-1960) -Bezirk Neubrandenberg-"(1) By Hans-Georg [著] Wilhelm and 武 [訳紹介] 村田 Publisher: 金沢大学経済学部 = Faculty of Economics Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Japan Mikhail Gorbachev's presence at the congress endorsed Honecker's policy course, which was also strengthened by some reshuffling of the party leadership. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. In 2007 the PDS merged with the western-based Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (WASG) to create the new party The Left (Die Linke), which has resulted in a higher acceptance in western states, the party now also being represented in the parliaments of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Bremen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saarland, Hesse and Hamburg. Im 1. The Central Committee Secretariat met each Wednesday to implement decisions finalised by the Politburo the previous day and to prepare the agenda for the Central Committee's next weekly meeting. The Party Central Committee, reflecting the country's overall power structure, was overwhelmingly male: the proportion of women never rose above 15%. Soviet intelligence claimed to have a list of names of an SPD group within the SED that was covertly forging links with the SPD in the West and even with the Western Allied occupation authorities. The country's government, formally headed by the Council of Ministers, was required only to implement the decisions of the politburo. It has been important in addressing east-German issues and addressing social problems. According to Tiulpanov, many former members of the KPD expressed the sentiment that they had "forfeited [their] revolutionary positions, that [the KPD] alone would have succeeded much better had there been no SED, and that the Social Democrats are not to be trusted" (Tiulpanov, 1946). institut für kunstwissenschaft und historische urbanistik. At a special Politbüro meeting on 18 October, Honecker was voted out as general secretary and replaced by Egon Krenz, the party's number-two leader. In 1971, Ulbricht was succeeded by Erich Honecker who presided over a stable period in the development of the GDR until he was forced to step down during the 1989 revolution. On 9 November the SED Politbüro drafted new travel regulations allowing anyone who wanted to visit West Germany to do so by crossing East Germany's borders with official permission. [7] This meant that the party organisation was at work in publicly owned industrial and quasi-commercial enterprises, machine and tractor stations, publicly owned farms and in the larger agricultural cooperatives, expressly mandated to monitor and regulate the operational management of each institution. However, after a final round of talks with Gorbachev, Honecker signed a hard-line communiqué that openly attacked the policies of the West German government. First Secretary Walter Ulbricht announced the "ten requirements of the socialist moral and ethics". Honecker was more specific about the SED's position toward the intelligentsia at the Fourth Plenum of the Central Committee, where he stated: "As long as one proceeds from the firm position of socialism, there can in my opinion be no taboos in the field of art and literature. Overall, the 11th Congress exhibited confidence in East Germany's role as the strongest economy and the most stable country in Eastern Europe. Autorenkollektiv unt. This applies to questions of content as well as of style, in short to those questions which constitute what one calls artistic mastery.". The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Russian initials: SVAG) directly governed the eastern areas of Germany following World War II, and their intelligence operations carefully monitored all political activities. Infografik, Sozialistische Umgestaltung der Landwirtschaft Zentralbild Stolz-10.4.1958 Sozialistische Umgestaltung der Landwirtschaft-Die Genossenschaftsbewegung in der Landwirtschaft hat in diesem Jahr einen großen Aufschwung genommen. This meant that a manager, provided he was a party member, was committed to implementing those decisions. Die DDR: der sozialistische Gegenentwurf zur Bundesrepublik Berliner Mauer Machtsicherung Allgegenwart der Geheimpolizei Umgestaltung der SED "Partei neuen Typus" demokratischer Zentralismus Missbrauch des Zivil-, Familien- und Arbeitsrecht Unterordnung der Justiz unter die Honecker reiterated earlier positions on the relationship between the two German states, stressing that they were two sovereign states that had developed along different lines since World War II, and that their differences had to be respected by both sides as they continued efforts toward peaceful coexistence despite membership in antagonistic alliances. On the day of the 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR, 7 October 1989, the old Social Democratic Party was (illegally) refounded. User Account. The Secretariat comprised the Central Committee Party Secretaries. Immer dann, wenn die Zunft bereit war, sich auf ein bestimmtes, als besonders angemessen und erkenntnisträchtig eingeschätztes Forschungskonzept zu einigen, veränderten sich die politischen Systeme gravierend. In: Rytlewski R. (eds) Politik und Gesellschaft in sozialistischen Ländern. The union of the two parties was thus effective only in the Soviet zone. A truer picture of the SED's support came with the local elections in Berlin, which were the first honest elections held there since the Nazi era[citation needed]. The 3rd Party Congress convened in July 1950 and emphasized industrial progress. The 10th Congress, which took place in April 1981, celebrated the status quo; the meeting unanimously re-elected Honecker to the office of general secretary, and there were no electoral surprises, as all incumbents except the ailing 76-year-old Albert Norden were returned to the Politbüro and the Secretariat. Ergebnisse Eines Ordnungspolitischen Experiments 1945-1989 Vierteljahrschrift Fur Sozial- Und Wirtschaftsgeschichte - Beihefte Vswg-b: Schwarzer, Oskar: Books Beyond the professional functionaries and politicians the Committee also included the chiefs of the country's leading institutions and industrial combines, the president of the country's Writers' Association, top military officers and party veterans. Walter Ulbricht was the party's dominant figure and effective leader of East Germany from 1950 to 1971. Cite as. As a result, the early SED party apparatus frequently became effectively immobilised as former KPD members began discussing any proposal, however small, at great length with former SPD members, so as to achieve consensus and avoid offending them. H.‐G. During the 9th Congress, the SED also responded to some of the public excitement and unrest that had emerged in the aftermath of the signing of the Helsinki Accords, the human rights documents issued at the meetings in 1975 of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. This was widely interpreted as a decision to open the Berlin Wall. Frenzel, Paul, 1988: Das sozialistische Geldsystem der DDR, in: Deutschland Archiv 7, 765–777. Party secretaries existed at different levels within the party. The party organisation was based on and co-located with, the institutions of the German Democratic Republic. Sozialistische Zentralplanwirtschaft in Der Sbz/Ddr: Ergebnisse Eines Ordnungspolitischen Experiments (1945-1989): 143: Schwarzer, Oskar: Books Buy Sozialistische Zentralplanwirtschaft in Der Sbz/Ddr. Unable to display preview. When Mikhail Gorbachev initiated reforms in the Soviet Union in the 1980s, the SED held to an orthodox line. Four years on, there was little sign of the KPD/SPD parity that had been invoked when the SED was created.[8]. At a regional level the SED leadership team was typically supported by a First Secretary and a Second Secretary, and a secretariat team responsible for "Agitation and propaganda", Economy, Science, Culture and Agriculture. It was first announced in October 1960 at the 25th plenary session of the Deutsche Bauakademie, the central architectural and urbanist think-tank in the GDR Doehler 1960b). The rest of October saw widespread protests across the country, including in East Berlin and Leipzig. Bundesarchiv Bild 183-64083-0001, Erdölleitung Sowjetunion-DDR.jpg 616 × 800; 60 KB. [Horst Lambrecht; Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung] Home. Managerial decisions were discussed and ultimately decided in party committees. The ideal of ‘sozialistische Umgestaltung’ was originally developed by architect and urban planner Peter Doehler (1924–2008), who directed the German academy’s department of urban planning. [11] The vast majority of domestic SED assets were transferred to the GDR government before unification. They ensured implementation of and compliance with party decisions and undertook general reporting and leadership duties. An early intelligence report from SVAG Propaganda Administration director Lieutenant Colonel Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov indicates that the former KPD and SPD members created different factions within the SED and remained rather mutually antagonistic for some time after the formation of the new party. sozialistische arbeit in stadt und land demo. Sozialistischer Realismus contra Formalismus: Kulturpolitik in den Anfangsjahren der DDR im Zeichen der sozialistischen Umgestaltung (German Edition) eBook: Roeber, Sabine: Kindle Store Regional level government structure changed dramatically with the abolition of regional assemblies in 1952, but each administrative structure always had party secretary, applying a structure also replicated in administrative structures at local levels. The party's regional structure started with the country's fifteen regions. These enterprises incorporated 75% of the industrial sector. Programm der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Berlin 1963. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Vierteljahrschrift Fur Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte: Sozialistische Zentralplanwirtschaft in der SBZ/DDR : Ergebnisse Eines Ordnungspolitischen Experiments (1945-1989) by Oskar Schwarzer (1999, Trade Paperback) at the best online prices at eBay! Die sozialistische Umgestaltung in der SBZ/DDR Plakat der 2.SED-Parteikonferenz: Schöne neue Welt Mit den Enteignungen Demontagen und der Bodenreform der Jahre 1945 - 1947 war eine erste Phase der vorsozialistischen Umgestaltung realisiert. One of the regime's efforts to stem the tide ended up being its death knell. Until the 11th Party Congress, East German leaders had maintained that small and medium states had a significant role to play in international affairs. On 18 March 1990, the PDS was roundly defeated in the first—and as it turned out, only—free election in the GDR; the Alliance for Germany coalition, led by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), won on a platform of speedy reunification with the west. Walter Ulbricht was re-elected as the party's First Secretary. The GDR regime considered economic benefits as a major advantage, but the party viewed with misgivings the rapid increase in travel by West Germans to and through the GDR. The last was the 11th Party Congress in April 1986. In theory the party congresses set policy and elected the leadership, provided a forum for discussing the leadership's policies, and undertook activities that served to legitimize the party as a mass movement.